南粤36选7 500期走势
 
珠三角大氣成分觀測站網
珠江三角洲大氣成分觀測站網的主要目標是監測溫室氣體、大氣氣溶膠、反應性痕量氣體、常規氣象要素、大氣輻射、干濕沉降等大氣成分要素的演變過程與特征。目前的觀測重點是氣溶膠的物理、化學與光學特性的主要參數:光學厚度、黑碳氣溶膠、散射系數和吸收系數、單次散射反照率、氣溶膠粒子譜、成分譜和質量濃度等。針對珠三角地區大氣污染嚴重的問題,我們正在開展氣溶膠光學特性、衛星遙感與應用、氣溶膠對能見度、光化輻射、臭氧、灰霾與光化學煙霧的影響研究。更多大氣成分對環境、天氣和氣候的影響有待于更進一步的研究。

珠江三角洲大氣成分觀測站網

珠江三角洲位于中國南部,是由廣州,香港,佛山,東莞,深圳和澳門等城市組成的超級大城市群地區。由于人類活動和飛速城市化進程,該地區產生大量的大氣污染物。為了更好地研究該區域大氣污染物的特性,華南區域氣象中心從2003年開始在該區域建設大氣成分觀測業務站網,該業務站網目前已包括一個主站和十二個子站,主站位于廣州番禺南村鎮大鎮崗山。中國氣象局廣州熱帶海洋氣象研究所于2008年開始在主站建設大氣物理與大氣化學實驗室。大氣成分觀測站網的主要目標是監測溫室氣體、大氣氣溶膠、反應性痕量氣體、常規氣象要素、大氣輻射、干濕沉降等大氣成分要素的演變過程與特征。目前的觀測重點是氣溶膠的物理、化學與光學特性的主要參數:光學厚度、黑碳氣溶膠、散射系數和吸收系數、單次散射反照率、氣溶膠粒子譜、成分譜和質量濃度等。針對珠三角地區大氣污染嚴重的問題,我們正在開展氣溶膠光學特性、衛星遙感與應用、氣溶膠對能見度、光化輻射、臭氧、灰霾與光化學煙霧的影響研究。更多大氣成分對環境、天氣和氣候的影響有待于更進一步的研究。在這里介紹2004年觀測以來的一些基本情況和資料統計特征。


觀測要素與站網布點

珠江三角洲大氣成分觀測站網包括一個主站與十二個子站,具有大量的觀測儀器和多個觀測項目:

  • 1)氣溶膠光學/物理/化學特性
  • 2)氣溶膠垂直廓線
  • 3)氣態污染物
  • 4)光化輻射通量譜和紫外總輻射
  • 5)地表通量和輻射平衡
  • 6)溫度,水汽和風廓線
  • 7)常規氣象要素

The Observation Network for Atmospheric Composition Over Pearl River Delta

The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is highly urbanized with a cluster of large cities located in the south of China, including Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Foshan, Dongguan,Shenzhen, and Macao. The rapid increase in the urbanization and human activities has important impacts on atmospheric aerosols and pollutants in this region. To better understand the characteristics of these pollutants, Regional Meteorological Center in South China has established an operational network of observation stations for measuring atmospheric components in the PRD region since 2003, which currently consists one main station and twelve sub-stations. The main station is located in Dazhengang mountain, Nancun Town, Panyu District in Guangzhou. Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology (ITMM)of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) established a laboratory for atmospheric physics and atmospheric chemistry at the main station in 2008. The main objectives of the observation is to monitor the evolution of the atmospheric components, including greenhouse gas, aerosols, trace gas, regular meteorological variables, atmospheric radiation, and dry and wet depositions. Currently, the measurement focuses on optical depth, black carbon, scattering and absorbing coefficients, single scattering albedo, aerosol particle spectrum, composition and mass concentration etc. Aiming at severe air pollution over PRD, researches on the characteristics of the aerosol optical properties, remote sensing and its application, the effects of aerosols on the visibility, actinic flux, ozone, haze and photochemical smog over the PRD region are being carried out. More researches on the effects of atmospheric components on the environment, weather and climate are expected. Some basic information and statistic features of observational data since 2004 at the stations are introduced here.


Observation covers

This network consists of one main station and twelve sub-stations over PRD, and a large set of instruments and measurements:

  • 1) Aerosol optical,physical and chemical properties
  • 2) Aerosol vertical profiles
  • 3) Gas phase pollutant
  • 4) Actinic flux spectrum and UV radiation
  • 5) Surface fluxes and radiation balance
  • 6) Temperature, water vapor and wind profiles
  • 7) Meteorological parameters

氣溶膠光學特性監測系統
Aerosol optical properties monitoring system

 

氣溶膠光學厚度
Aerosol optical depth (AOD)

 

AOD 可以用來表征大氣中氣溶膠柱含量。觀測AOD的儀器有自動跟蹤式的和手持式的太陽光度計(CE318,Cimel; MicroposII, Solar Light Co)。太陽光度計利用可見光和近紅外波段的幾個濾光片觀測直接太陽輻射,并從中反演出AOD和其它變量(例如水汽柱含量和臭氧柱含量)。

AOD can be used to represent the aerosol loading in an atmospheric column. An automatic or hand-held sunphotometer (CE318,Cimel; MicroposII, Solar Light Co.) with several filters in visible and near infrared is capable of measuring direct solar irradiance in each band, and deriving the AOD and other variables (such as water vapor column and ozone column).

 

340nm and 550nm氣溶膠光學厚度隨季節變化
The seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth at 340nm and 550nm

 


氣溶膠消光系數垂直廓線
Aerosol extinction coefficient vertical profile

微脈沖激光雷達(MPL-4B, Sigma Space Co.)用于測量527nm波長處的氣溶膠垂直消光系數。同時,激光雷達資料可以用來反演其它產品,例如大氣邊界層高度和云邊界的演變等。

Aerosol vertical extinction coefficient at the wavelength of 527nm is measured using a Micro-pulse Lidar(MPL-4B, Sigma Space Co.). And other products, for example, atmospheric boundary layer height and cloud boundary, can be derived from the lidar data set.

 

激光雷達反演的邊界層高度與消光系數垂直廓線
Boundary layer height and extinction coefficient vertical profile retrieved by Lidar

 


氣溶膠吸收系數
Aerosol absorption coefficient

黑碳(BC)對輻射有強烈的吸收作用。利用黑碳儀(AE-31, Magee Sci.)測量370,470,520,590,660,880 and 950nm波長處的BC濃度。黑碳儀通過測量濾紙帶上采集的氣溶膠粒子的光衰減,利用光學分析法測量出黑碳的質量濃度,進而計算氣溶膠吸收系數。

Light can be absorbed smallly especially by black carbon (BC). The BC concentration in atmosphere is measured at wavelengths of 370,470,520,590,660,880 and 950nm by the aethalometer (AE-31, Magee Sci.). The Aethalometer uses optical analysis to determine the mass concentration of BC particles collected from an air stream passing through a filter, and then calculates aerosol absorption coefficient.

 

黑碳氣溶膠的季節變化,主站(左),番禺子站(右)
The seasonal variation of Black Carbon at the main station (L) and Panyu sub-sation (R)

 


氣溶膠散射系數
Aerosol scattering coefficient

氣溶膠對輻射有散射作用。氣溶膠的散射系數的觀測儀器是積分濁度計(M9003, Ecotech)。濁度計能對氣溶膠的散射系數進行實時連續的觀測。由于空氣中含有顆粒物,濁度計連續地抽取空氣,利用光學分析法能夠實時地測量顆粒物對光的散射作用。

Light can be scattered by aerosol. The observation of aerosol scattering coefficient are made using an Integrating Nephelometer(M9003, Ecotech). The Nephelometer continuously and in real-time measures the light scattering in a sample of ambient air due to the presence of particulate matter using optical analysis.

 

番禺子站的氣溶膠散射系數的月變化(左)和日變化(右)
The monthly (L) and diurnal (R) variation of aerosol scattering coefficient at the Panyu sub-sation

 


能見度
Visibility

氣溶膠能夠影響能見度,污染嚴重時,高濃度的氣溶膠能引起低能見度事件。利用前向散射能見度儀(M6000, Belfort Ins.C.)測量能見度和消光系數。

Aerosols have important impacts on visibility. The high aerosol concentrations often produce low visibility events. The visibility range is measured with the forward scattering visibility sensor(M6000, Belfort Ins.C.). The light extinction coefficient and visibility can be output simultaneously.


氣溶膠物理和化學特性的監測系統
Aerosol physical and chemical properties monitoring system

 

氣溶膠粒子尺度譜分布
Aerosol size distribution

 

顆粒物監測儀(Grimm 180)利用光的散射技術對顆粒物進行測量。該儀器利用31個通道對直徑在0.25-32μm之間的顆粒物進行測量。基于粒子密度的假設,可以實時計算PM10, PM2.5 和 PM1的質量濃度。

Counts of particulates that are with diameter between 0.25-32μm in 31 channels are measured by a dust monitor (Grimm 180) that uses light–scattering technology. PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations can be calculated simultaneously based on density assumption of particle.

 

主站的不同尺度顆粒物數濃度的日變化
The diurnal variation of particle number density at different size range at the main station

主站的氣溶膠質量濃度的概率分布
The probability distribution of aerosol mass concentration at the main station

 

 

SMPS(TSI 3936)系統用于測量20-1000nm的氣溶膠粒子。顆粒物先進入電遷移分選器按電遷移直徑進行粒子分選,再進入凝結計數器進行個數測量。

The SMPS(TSI 3936) spectrometer is a system that measures the size distribution of aerosols in the size range from 20nm to 1000nm. Particles are classified with an differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and their concentration is measured with a condensation particle counter(CPC).

 


氣溶膠吸濕增長特性
Hygroscopic properties of aerosols

HTDMA系統用于測量次微米粒子的吸濕增長特性,可得到粒子在不同相對濕度下的吸濕增長因子和物質含水量,并可用作推測氣溶膠的化學組分和混合狀態。

Hygroscopic properties of aerosols is measured by an Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer(HTDMA), which is used to determine the water uptake on sub-micrometer particles at substaturated conditions, and speculate the chemical composition and mixing state of aerosols.

 

主站的TDMA 擬合的歸一化顆粒物質量濃度(上)和顆粒物數濃度譜(下)
Normalized aerosol mass concentration TDMA fit(T) and aerosol number density SMPS(B) at the main station

 


氣溶膠質量分布
Aerosol mass distribution

震蕩天平法顆粒物質量監測儀(TEOM-1405 Series)是基于濾膜實時測量氣流中懸浮顆粒物質量。其原理是吸入周圍的空氣,以恒定的流速通過濾膜,同時不斷利用震蕩天平法測量濾膜的重量并近似實時測出顆粒物(PM10, PM2.5 和 PM1)的質量濃度。另外,該儀器還計算顆粒1小時、8小時、12小時和24小時內的平均質量濃度,可供選擇存儲。

The TEOM 1405 series Monitors are instruments that draw ambient air through filters at constant flow rate, continuously weighing the filter and calculating near real-time mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. In addition, the instruments compute the 1-hour, 8-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour averages of the mass concentration for each type of particulate.

 

2010年PM2.5的逐日變化
The daily variation of PM2.5 in 2010

 


有機碳與元素碳成分分析
Analysis of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) compounds

熱光法碳分析儀(DRI2001)根據有機碳(OC)和元素碳(EC)在不同溫度下可選擇性氧化,認為當樣品暴露在有氦氣的低溫環境中時,揮發性有機物可以從樣品中揮發出來,而元素碳不會被氧化和清除。根據此原理分析檢測樣品中的EC/OC濃度。

The DRI 2001 thermal/optical carbon analyzer is based on the preferential oxidation of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) compounds at different temperatures. It relies on the fact that organic compounds can be volatilized from the sample deposit in a helium (He) atmosphere at low temperatures, while elemental carbon is not oxidized and removed.

 

廣東省氣象局采樣的EC/OC分析結果
OC/EC mass concentration at Guangdong Provincial Meteorological Administration

 


水溶性成分分析
Analysis of aerosol water-soluble compositions

Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA ADI2080)是通過旋轉液膜氣蝕器和蒸汽噴射氣溶膠收集器(螺旋式玻璃管)來分離并制成可溶性的氣體和氣溶膠樣品溶液,基于液相色譜制造的全自動半連續測量氣溶膠中可溶性離子成分(NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-)和氣體(NH3, HNO2, HNO3, HCl, SO2)的在線監測系統。系統可連續獲得每小時氣體和氣溶膠濃度的平均結果。MARGA包括采樣系統和分析系統。

Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA ADI2080) is a film by Wet Rotating Denuder (WRD)and Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) to isolate and soluble gases and aerosols into the sample solution, all based on liquid chromatography,which is an automatic semi-continuous measurement of aerosol soluble ion composition (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and gas (NH3, HNO2, HNO3, HCl, SO2) on-line monitoring system. This system, including the sampling system and analysis system, could continuous access average concentrations of gases and aerosols results per hour.     

 

主站的氣體(左)和氣溶膠(右)可溶性離子成分日變化
Diurnal variation of water-soluble composition of gas(L) and aerosol(R) at the main station

 


揮發性有機物在線色譜監測系統
VOCs online sampling system

AMA GC5000系統主要包括DIM200進樣/校準模塊、GC5000VOC和GC5000BTX監測模塊。在完成樣品富集、分離分析后,通過自動色譜和FID檢測器可測量臭氧前體物(C2-C6范圍的低沸點物種和C4-C12范圍的高沸點物種)。

A GC system for continuous monitoring of the complete range of ozone precursor from C2-C12 can be configured by combining the DIM200, GC5000VOC and GC5000BTX. The measurement is based on the principle of adsorption of compounds on special materials in an enrichment tube and detection of the organic compounds with the help of a FID detector after separation on a capillary column of a GC.

 

2011年8月主站的VOC譜
Volatile Organic Compounds ( VOCs ) in August 2011 at the main station

 


光化輻射通量譜與光解速率和輻照度的觀測
Actinic flux spectrum,photolysis rates and irradiance observation

METCON公司的光化學輻射通量觀測儀利用快速單片集成電路技術以及對溫度變化不敏感的陶制玻璃單色分光器實現穩定光譜的探測;通過512象素二極管陣列探測器實現了象素譜寬為0.85nm與光譜分辨率為2.1nm的高精度測量。可測量紫外低端譜UVB至可見光的太陽輻射光譜(280-700nm),并測量計算多種物質(J(O1D),J(NO2)、J(CHO)、J(HONO)、J(NO3)、etal)的光解速率,該儀器對研究城市或區域的光化學污染機制非常適用與重要。

This type of spectrometer (Mectcon) is capable of measuring irradiance, direct sun, actinic fluxes and photolysis rates form spectrally resolved data. It is based on a monolithic monochromator which has no moving parts. Made from ceramics/ glass, the monochromator has negligible sensitivity to temperature changes. It uses a 512 pixel diode array detector with a spatial resolution of ca 0.85 nm(pixeldistance) and an HWFH of ca. 2.1nm. Software supplied with the spectrometer records the spectral raw data as well as calculating the photolysis rates for J(O1D),J(CHO),J(NO2),J(HONO),and J(NO3) in real-time.

 

2011-11-26 15:00主站的光化輻射通量譜(左)與2011-12-14 主站的光解速率日變化(右)
Actinic flux Spectrum at 15:00 on Dec 26, 2011(L)and diurnal variation of photolysis rates on Dec 14,2011(R) at the main station

 


過氧乙酰硝酸酯自動監測
Automatic analyzer for peroxyacetyl nitrate ( PAN )

METCON公司的PAN粒子色譜分析儀是以氣體作為流動相(載氣),使用氣相色譜原理監測空氣中的PAN。當樣品由微量注射器“注射”進樣后被載氣攜帶進入填充柱或毛細管色譜柱,通過自動色譜分析得到PAN的濃度。

The Automatic PAN Analyzer ( Metcon ) comprises gas chromatographic separation on capillary columns at sub-ambient temperature with electron capture detection. A hydrid system containing both oven modules and thus combining the advantage of a faster MPAN analysis with the use of CCL4 as internal standard can be provided upon special request.

 

2012-2-1主站的過氧乙酰硝酸酯的日變化
Diurnal variation of peroxyacetyl nitrate ( PAN) on Feb 1,2012 at the main station

 


膜采樣
Filter sampler

利用安德森氣溶膠分級采樣器(Model 20-709, 9 stages, Andersen)和小流量便攜式氣溶膠采樣器(Airmetrics)來采集氣溶膠樣品。 利用電子天平對樣品稱重,得到顆粒物的質量分布。利用離子色譜分析法和熱光法對水溶性和含碳成分進行分析。

Andersen air sampler(Model 20-709, 9 stages, Andersen) and Mini Volume air sampler(Airmetrics) are used for collecting aerosol samples. Mass distribution of particulates is weighted by electronic balance. Water-soluble and carbonic composition are measured with the ion chromatographic method and thermal-optical method separately.

 

  Clean days   <td rowspan="12" "=""> Polluted days
Diameter (µm) Nov.4
μg/m3
Dec.9
μg/m3
Dec.16
μg/m3
Nov.10
μg/m3
Nov.14
μg/m3
Nov.16
μg/m3
Dec.17
μg/m3
9.0~10 9.35 5.90 6.86 15.89 13.81 15.84 18.05
5.8~9.0 12.15 12.53 9.31 20.13 12.66 30.10 21.43
4.7~5.8 7.48 0.74 5.39 10.59 8.05 23.76 4.51
3.3~4.7 7.48 0.74 6.86 14.83 17.26 25.35 6.77
2.1~3.3 5.61 2.21 6.37 19.07 19.56 20.60 13.54
1.1~2.1 7.48 12.53 7.84 26.48 27.61 25.35 29.33
0.65~1.1 14.95 8.11 10.78 22.24 26.46 33.27 23.69
0.43~0.65 17.76 10.32 5.39 24.36 23.01 26.93 32.71
0.08~0.43 7.48 8.11 7.84 22.24 2.30 22.18 14.67
Total concentration 89.71 61.16 66.67 175.84 150.71 223.39 164.70
2006年珠三角地區清潔過程和污染過程不同尺度氣溶膠的質量濃度(μg/m3
Aerosol mass concentration(μg/m3) at different size range on clean and polluted days in 2006 over PRD region

 


氣態污染物監測系統
Gas phase pollutant monitoring system

氣態污染物監測系統由四臺空氣分析儀和一套標定儀器(Sabio 2010, Sabio 2020, Sabio 2030)組成。該套監測系統能測量痕量氣體和反應性氣體,包括:氮氧化物(NO/NO2/NOX, EC9841B), 二氧化硫(SO2, EC9850B), 一氧化碳(CO, EC9830B) 和臭氧(O3,EC9810B)。

Gas phase pollutant monitoring system consists of four air analyzers and a set of calibration instruments(Sabio 2010, Sabio 2020, Sabio 2030). The air analyzers measure the amount of trace gases and reactive gases such as nitrogen oxides(NO/NO2/NOX, EC9841B), sulfur dioxide(SO2, EC9850B), carbon monoxide (CO, EC9830B) and ozone(O3,EC9810B).

主站NOX 的概率分布
The probability distribution of NOx at the main station
主站SO2的概率分布
The probability distribution of SO2 at the main station
主站和番禺子站O3的概率分布
     The probability distribution of O3 at the main station and Panyu sub-station

地表通量和輻射收支監測系統
Eddy covariance system

作為超級城市群,珠三角地處熱帶季風嚴重影響地區。大氣邊界層的陸氣過程和能量循環的主要特征與熱通量、動量通量、物質通量和輻射收支有著密切的關系。熱通量、動量通量、物質通量和輻射收支的監測對研究該地區的陸氣過程和能量循環顯得尤為重要。

It is very important to estimate the fluxes of momentum, heat and material and radiation budget to understand main characters of land-air processes and energy cycles in the atmosphere boundary over PRD, where is in a tropical monsoon region and with cities gathered in groups.

渦動相關系統
Filter sampler

利用三維超聲風速溫度測量儀(CSAT3, Campbell)和開路紅外二氧化碳/水汽脈動儀(LiCOR 7500)測量通量,包括動量通量,潛熱通量(LE),感熱通量(H),和二氧化碳(CO2)通量等。

The fluxes of momentum, latent heat(LE) ,sensible heat(H) and carbon dioxide(CO2) are measured with a three-axe Ultra-sonic Anemometer(CSAT3, Campbell), and an opened path infrared CO2 and H2O analyzer(LiCOR 7500).

 

2004年5月至2005年6月番禺子站凈輻射通量(),感熱通量(),潛熱通量(),土壤熱流量(),和二氧化碳通量()月平均的日變化
Diurnal variation of monthly mean net radiation (), sensible heat flux (), latent heat flux (), soil heat flux (), and  flux () from May 2004 to July 2005 at the Panyu sub-station

 


大口徑閃爍儀(X-LAS)
Large aperture acintillometer(X-LAS)

大口徑閃爍儀可測量遠至8km的水平平面內的空氣折射指數參數。該儀器所觀測到的資料可以訂正衛星觀測資料,同時也可以反演感熱通量,對研究面上的能量收支有重要作用。

LAS can measure the path-averaged structure parameter of refractive index of air over horizontal path lengths from 0.25km to 8km. The sensible heat flux derived from LAS is used for energy balance study. It is also useful in the validation of satellite observation.


地表輻射收支觀測系統
Surface radiation balance system

地表輻射收支觀測系統的觀測儀器有凈輻射表(CM22, Kipp&Zonen),長波輻射表(CG4, Kipp&Zonen)和多波段太陽光度計(CE318, CIMEL)。利用兩套凈輻射表和長波輻射表同時測量向上和向下的長短波輻射。多波段太陽光度計用5個通道(440,670,870,940,1020nm)測量太陽直接短波輻射和天空亮度。

The instruments of this system consist of pyranometer(CM22, Kipp&Zonen), pyrgeometer(CG4, Kipp&Zonen), and multi-bands radiometer (CE318, CIMEL). Two pyranometers and two pyrgeometers measure simultaneously upward/downward short-wave and long-wave irradiance. The CE318 is capable of measuring direct solar irradiance and sky irradiance at 5 wavelengths of 440,670,870,940,1020nm.

 

2004年5月至2005年6月番禺子站向下短波輻射(DSR),向上短波輻射(USR), 向下長波輻射(DLR), 向上長波輻射(ULR),和地表反照率月平均的日變化
Diurnal variations of monthly mean downward shortwave radiation (DSR), upward shortwave radiation (USR), downward longwave radiation (DLR), upward longwave radiation (ULR), and surface albedo from May 2004 to July 2005 at the Panyu sub-station.

 


紫外輻射觀測
UV radiation observation

利用紫外輻射表(UV-A-B-T, Kipp&Zonen; TUVR, Eppley Lab.) 測量地面紫外輻照度。

Surface ultraviolet irradiance measurement is measured with an UV radiometer(UV-A-B-T, Kipp&Zonen; TUVR, Eppley Lab.) .

 

逐月紫外輻射月平均的日變化 (295-385nm)
The monthly mean diurnal variation of UV (295-385nm)

 


溫度,水汽和風廓線
Temperature, water vapor and wind profiles

連續實時的氣溫,濕度和風廓線的觀測資料對于提高天氣預報尤其臨近預報的準確率起到至關重要的作用,同時對于研究混合層高度演變過程起到關鍵作用。

Continuous real-time upper air temperature, humidity and wind profiling is critical to the improving of accuracy and timeliness of weather nowcasts and forecasts, as well as understanding of the evolution of mixed layer height.

 

利用微波輻射計(TP/WVP3000, Radiometrics)可測量10km以下的溫度,濕度和云水廓線,同時利用邊界層風廓線雷達(WP-3000, SiChuang Electronic)測量3km以下的風廓線。

The measurement of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid profiles from surface to 10km height are made with a microwave radiometers (TP/WVP3000, Radiometrics), and that of wind profiles from surface to 3km height are carried out by a boundary wind profile radar.(WP-3000, SiChuang Electronic.)

 


氣象觀測
Meteorological observations

利用自動氣象站(MAWS201, MAWS301, Vaisala)觀測溫度,濕度,氣壓,雨量和風速等地面氣象要素。

Surface meteorological observations, such as temperature, relative humidity, pressure, rain, and wind are measured by an automatic weather system(MAWS201, MAWS301, Vaisala).


  • 聯系方式CONTACT
  • 萬齊林 研究員 (所 長)
  • Prof. Qilin Wan ( Director of ITMM,CMA )
  • 電話 Phone:020-87676176  傳真 Fax:020-87775231
  • 電郵 Email:[email protected]
  •  
  • 鄧雪嬌 研究員 (環境氣象首席)
  • Prof. Xuejiao Deng (Section Head of Environmental Meteorology Research Group of ITMM, CMA )
  • 電話 Phone:020-87676029  傳真 Fax:020-87775231
  • 電郵 Email:[email protected]
  •  
  • 吳  兌 研究員 (科學顧問)
  • Prof. Dui Wu (Scientific Adviser)
  • http://www.itmm.gov.cn
  • 中國氣象局廣州熱帶海洋氣象研究所
  • Institute of tropical and marine meteorology(ITMM), CMA ,Guangzhou
  • 團隊成員:吳兌,鄧雪嬌,譚浩波,李菲,鄧濤,麥博儒,劉顯通,顧雪松
  • Research Group: Dui Wu, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, Fei Li, Tao Deng, Boru Mai, Xiantong Liu,Xuesong Gu
 
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